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Faceted Stones S-Z

Stone Name Color Treatment Usually Cut As
Blue Sapphire, AAA grade Blue Sapphire, AAA grade Medium blue Heat-treated
9
Faceted
Blue Sapphire, AA grade Blue Sapphire, AA grade Deep blue Heat-treated
9
Faceted
Blue Sapphire, A grade Blue Sapphire, A grade Medium to deep blue Heat-treated
9
Cabochon
Faceted
Pink Sapphire Pink Sapphire Pink Heat-treated
9
Faceted
White Sapphire White Sapphire White to bluish-white None
9
Faceted
Yellow Sapphire Yellow Sapphire Yellow Heat-treated
9
Faceted
Synthetic Padparadscha Sapphire Padparadscha Sapphire
(synthetic)
Reddish yellow Laboratory-grown corundum
9
Faceted
Synthetic Blue Sapphire Blue Sapphire
(synthetic)
Medium to deep blue Laboratory-grown corundum
9
Cabochon
Faceted
Simulated Blue Sapphire Blue Sapphire
(simulated)
Blue Imitation
Lab-grown blue spinel
8
Faceted
Sapphire:
Sapphire is a member of the corundum family that can occur as blue, yellow, pink, brown, lilac, and green, both as transparent and opaque, the opaque sometimes shows a star (asterism) or cat's eye (chatoyancy).
Until the Middle Ages, sapphires were called hyacinths because of their pale blue color. It wasn't until other colors of sapphire were found that the name changed, the blue variety retained the name of sapphire while the other varieties gained a color description along with the name sapphire (pink sapphire, golden sapphire, etc.) with the exception of the red variety which is called ruby.
Sapphire is a September birthstone in the modern tradition, an April and September birthstone in the ancient tradition, and associated with the astrological sign Taurus.
Lore:
Prized since ancient times, sapphire has been called the “gem of the heavens.” Persians believed the earth rested on an enormous sapphire and the sky reflected its beautiful color. In the 12th century, the Bishop of Rennes praised the sapphire and used it in ecclesiastical rings.
Sapphires are traditionally connected with the eye and the sky, and therefore with vision and the ability to read the future.
Sapphires were believed to render black magic harmless and help the wearer discern falsehood and guile.
Care: Avoid harsh detergents. Usually safe to clean ultrasonically and steam clean the varieties of sapphire above.
Stone Name Color Treatment Usually Cut As
Tanzanite, AA grade Tanzanite, AA grade Medium blue-violet Heat-treated
6-7
Faceted
Tanzanite, A grade Tanzanite, A grade Light violet-blue Heat-treated
6-7
Faceted
Simulated Tanzanite Tanzanite
(simulated)
Violet-blue Imitation
Lab-created polysilicate on a quartz base
6
Faceted
Tanzanite:
a blue zoisite, is tri choric- it often exhibits different colors when seen from different directions. these stones are cut to show the orientation of deep blue and violet-blue colors.
Tanzanite gets its name from its country of origin, Tanzania where it was discovered in 1967.
Tanzanite is a December birthstone in the modern system.
Care: Avoid harsh detergents. Never clean ultrasonically or steam clean the varieties shown above.
Stone Name Color Treatment Usually Cut As
Golden Topaz Golden Topaz Golden Yellow None
8
Faceted
White Topaz White Topaz White None
8
Faceted
Anastasia Topaz Anastasia Topaz Cognac Coated
8
Faceted
Autumn Topaz Autumn Topaz Russet with a rainbow play of colors Coated
8
Faceted
Blush Topaz Blush Topaz Pink to rose Coated
8
Faceted
Enhanced Green Topaz Green Topaz
(enhanced)
Medium to medium-dark green Coated, diffusion-treated
8
Faceted
London Blue Topaz London Blue Topaz Intense dark blue Irradiated and heat-treated
8
Cabochon
Faceted
Peacock Topaz Peacock Topaz Blue-purple with a rainbow play of color Coated
8
Cabochon
Faceted
Rainbow Topaz Rainbow Topaz Blue-green with a rainbow play of color Coated
8
Cabochon
Faceted
Swiss Blue Topaz Swiss Blue Topaz Intense blue Irradiated and heat-treated
8
Faceted
Simulated Yellow Topaz Yellow Topaz
(simulated)
Yellow Imitation
Lab-grown corundum
8
Faceted
Topaz:
A transparent stone usually of golden yellow but also occurring as pink, red, blue, green and colorless specimens.
Golden Topaz is known as “Precious topaz” because it is the most valuable color of topaz. Possibly from the Sanskrit word for fire (topas), topaz contains about 20% water and fluorine. The color of the stone is determined by the relative proportions of these impurities. Those with more water are yellow to brown; those with more fluorine are typically blue or colorless.
The effect of anastasia topaz, autumn topaz, blush topaz, peacock topaz and rainbow topaz is produced by enhancing white topaz with a vapor deposition coating; these are not naturally occurring varieties.
In ancient times, the word topaz referred to several other stones and today it is often mistakenly used for smoky quartz and citrine.
Rubbing or gentle heating of topaz electrifies it causing it to attract small particles like bits of paper or hair.
Topaz is a November birthstone in the modern system, a November and August birthstone in the ancient tradition, and associated with the astrological sign Scorpio.
Care: Some varieties can fade in sunlight. Avoid harsh detergents. Never clean ultrasonically or steam clean the varieties shown above. Green topaz cannot be re-cut.
Stone Name Color Treatment Usually Cut As
Green Tourmaline Green Tourmaline Light blue-green to dark olive None
7-7.5
Cabochon
Faceted
Pink Tourmaline Pink Tourmaline Light to medium pink None
7-7.5
Cabochon
Faceted
Simulated Pink Tourmaline Pink Tourmaline
(simulated)
Light to medium pink Imitation
Lab-grown spinel
8
Faceted
Tourmaline:
A transparent stone of many colors, most notably green, blue-green and pink. Often several colors appear side by side in natural tourmaline. When the crystals are cut to reveal a pink semicircle with a green rim they are called watermelon tourmaline.
Tourmaline is dichromatic; it shows a bright color from one direction but will look almost black when seen from the side. Like topaz, this stone will hold static electricity if it is rubbed or gently heated. Together these two tests provide identification.
Tourmaline is an October birthstone.
Care: Avoid harsh detergents. Never clean ultrasonically or steam clean natural tourmaline. Simulated tourmaline is usually safe to clean ultrasonically or steam clean.
Stone Name Color Treatment Usually Cut As
Simulated Blue Zircon Blue Zircon
(simulated)
Intense blue Imitation
Lab-grown spinel
8
Faceted
Blue Zircon:
Natural Zircon is a transparent brittle stone that can be found in several different colors. Because its brittleness makes it difficult to cut, natural stones are rarely seen larger than a couple of carats.
Zircon is a December birthstone and is associated with the astrological signs of Taurus and Scorpio. Simulated Zircon is used as a substitute for natural zircon as a birthstone because it is more durable, it can be made in larger sizes, and be more cost effective than natural zircon.
Care: Avoid harsh detergents. Ultrasonic and steam cleaning are usually safe.
 

Sources for the above information:
Gem supply catalogue.
McCreight, Tim. The Complete Metalsmith: An Illustrated Handbook. Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S.A.: Davis Publications, INC, 1991.
Douglas Harper. “Online Etymology Dictionary.” November 2001. http://www.etymonline.com

Last updated 11/26/11